Categories in the Cognitive Domain:
- Knowledge remembering of previously learned material; of terminology; specific facts; ways and means of
dealing with specifics (conventions, trends and sequences, classifications
and categories, criteria, methodology); universals and abstractions in a
field (principles and generalizations, theories and structures):
Knowledge is (here) defined as the
remembering (recalling) of appropriate, previously learned
- defines; describes; enumerates; identifies; labels; lists;
matches; names; reads; records; reproduces; selects; states; views;
- Comprehension: Grasping (understanding) the meaning
- classifies; cites; converts; describes; discusses; estimates;
explains; generalizes; gives examples; illustrates; makes sense out
restates (in own words); summarizes; traces; understands.
- Application: The use of previously learned information in new
and concrete situations to solve problems that have single or best
- acts; administers; applies; articulates; assesses;
computes; constructs; contributes; controls; demonstrates;
discovers; establishes; extends; implements; includes; informs;
instructs; operationalizes; participates; predicts; prepares; preserves;
produces; projects; provides; relates; reports; shows; solves;
teaches; transfers; uses; utilizes.
- Analysis: The breaking down of informational materials into
their component parts, examining (and trying to understand the
organizational structure of) such information to develop divergent
conclusions by identifying motives or causes, making
inferences, and/or finding evidence to support generalizations.
- analyzes; breaks down; categorizes; compares; contrasts;
correlates; diagrams; differentiates;
discriminates; distinguishes; focuses; illustrates; infers; limits;
outlines; points out; prioritizes; recognizes; separates; subdivides.
- Synthesis: Creatively or divergently applying prior
and skills to produce a new or original whole.
- adapts; anticipates; collaborates; combines;
communicates; compiles; composes;
creates; designs; develops; devises; expresses;
formulates; generates; hypothesizes;
incorporates; individualizes; initiates; integrates; intervenes;
modifies; negotiates; plans; progresses; rearranges; reconstructs;
reinforces; reorganizes; revises; structures; substitutes; validates.
- Evaluation (On same level as synthesis?): Judging
of material based
on personal values/opinions, resulting in an
end product, with a given purpose, without real right or wrong answers.
- appraises; compares & contrasts; concludes; criticizes;
decides; defends; interprets; judges; justifies; reframes; supports.
Other Domains for Educational Objectives:
- Affective Domain (emphasizing feeling and emotion)
- Psychomotor Domain (concerned with motor skills)
bloom's taxonomy - learning domains
[design and evaluation toolkit for training and learning]
"Following the 1948 Convention of the American Psychological Association,
B.S. Bloom took a lead in formulating a
classification of "the goals of the educational process". Three "domains"
of educational activities were identified...."
- www.edselect.com/blooms.htm [Rating of various Bloom resources]
- The “New Bloom's Taxonomy,” Objectives, and Assessments
Prepared by Elizabeth Dalton; Dec 3, 2003 [gaeacoop.org/dalton/publications/new_bloom.pdf]
This document provides a review of the latest revision of the venerable “Bloom's
Taxonomy,” which combines aspects of the original taxonomy published by Bloom,
Engelhart, Furst, Hill, and Krathwohl in 1956 with more recent taxonomy and framework
research by others such as Merrill, Ausubel, Gagné, Romizowski, etc...."
- Explorations in
Learning & Instruction: The Theory Into Practice Database (Taxonomy)
- Bloom’s Taxonomy: Bloomin’ Peacock
Bloom's "taxonomy follows the thinking process. You can not understand a concept if you do not first remember it, similarly
you can not apply knowledge and concepts if you do not understand them. It is a continuum from Lower Order Thinking Skills
(LOTS) to Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS). Bloom labels each category with a gerund." (usage of a verb as a noun)
- Don Clark: Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Domains
The Three Types of Learning
"Bloom's Taxonomy was created in 1956 [...] in order to promote higher forms of thinking in education, such as analyzing and evaluating
concepts, processes, procedures, and principles, rather than just remembering facts (rote learning).
It is most often used when designing instruction or learning processes (Instructional Design)"
Writing Objectives Using Bloom’s Taxonomy
Bloom's Taxonomy Blooms Digitally, 2008; By Andrew Churches
The Second Principle: The work of Leslie Owen Wilson, Ed. D. (2001 - 2013)
Anderson and Krathwohl – Bloom’s Taxonomy Revised -- Understanding the New Version of
Bloom’s Taxonomy -- A succinct discussion of the revisions of Bloom’s classic cognitive taxonomy
by Anderson and Krathwohl and how to use them effectively
MCQs and Bloom's Taxonomy
[Cape Town, SA: UCT's page on Designing and Managing
Multiple Choice Questions;
Extensive Internet Resources for Higher Education Outcomes Assessment
* General resources--discussion groups, lists of links, archives of articles, etc.
* Assessment handbooks
* Assessment of specific skills or content
* Individual institutions' assessment-related pages [A to Z]
* State boards & commissions
* Accrediting bodies
* Student assessment of courses & faculty
Bloom's Taxonomy: Old & New Versions Richard C. Overbaugh
Old Dominion Universityv[www.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Bloom/blooms_taxonomy.htm]
Airasian, Peter W.; Cruikshank, Kathleen A.; Mayer, Richard E.;
Pintrich, Paul R.; Raths, James; Wittrock, Merlin C. Anderson, Lorin W.; Krathwohl, David R., eds.
A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. Allyn & Bacon, 2000.
Anderson, Lorin W. & Lauren A. Sosniak, eds., Bloom's Taxonomy:
A Forty-Year Retrospective. Chicago, Ill. : NSSE : Distributed by the University of Chicago Press, 1994.
Bloom's Taxonomy: A Forty-Year Retrospective. Chicago, Ill. : NSSE : Distributed by the University of Chicago Press, 1994.
Reflections on the development and use of the taxonomy / Benjamin S. Bloom
Excerpts from the "Taxonomy of educational objectives ... handbook 1: Cognitive domain" / Benjamin S. Bloom et al.
Bloom's taxonomy / Edward J. Furst
Psychological perspectives /William D. Rohwer, Jr. and Kathryn Sloane
Empirical investigations of the hierarchical structure of the taxonomy / Amelia E. Kreitzer and George F. Madaus
The impact of the taxonomy on testing and evaluation / Peter Airasian
The taxonomy, curriculum, and their relations / Lauren A. Sosniak
Research on teaching and teacher education / Lorin W. Anderson
The taxonomy of educational objectives in continental Europe, the Mediterranean, and the Middle East / Arieh Lewy and Zolta´n Ba´thory
The taxonomy in the Republic of Korea / Bom Mo Chung
Validity vs. utility / T. Neville Postlethwaite
Reflections on the taxonomy / David R. Krathwohl.
Anderson, L. & Krathwohl, D. A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and
Assessing: A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New
York: Longman, 2001.
Extensive Online Bloom Bibliography [www2.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/edpeople.htm#BBloom]
Bloom Benjamin S. and David R. Krathwohl. Taxonomy of
Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals, by a committee of college and university examiners.
Handbook I: Cognitive Domain. New York, Longmans, Green, 1956.
Bloom, Robert S., Stating Educational Objectives in Behavioral Terms,
Nursing Forum 14(1), 1975, 31-42.
Dettmer, P. (2006). New Bloom’s in established fields: Four domains of learning and doing. Roeper Review, 26, 70-78.
Examining Bloom's Taxonomy and Peschl’s Modes of Knowing for Classification of Learning Objects on the PBS.org/teachersource
Forehand, M. (2005). Bloom's taxonomy: Original and revised.. In M.
Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and
Garavalia, L., Hummel, J., Wiley, L., & Huitt, W. (1999). Constructing
the course syllabus: Faculty and student perceptions of important
syllabus components. Journal of Excellence in College Teaching, 10(1),
Gronlund, Norman E., Stating Behavioral Objectives for Classroom
Instruction. New York: Macmillan, 1970.
Harrow, A., A Taxonomy of the Psychomotor Domain. A guide for
Developing Behavioral Objectives. New York: McKay, 1972.
Huitt, W. (2009). Bloom et al.'s taxonomy of the cognitive domain. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University
Huitt, W. (1992). Problem solving and decision making: Consideration of
individual differences using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Journal
of Psychological Type, 24, 33-44.
Jonassen, D., W. Hannum, and M. Tessmer, "Bloom's Taxonomy of
Educational Objectives." Chapt. 12 of Handbook
of Task Analysis Procedures. New York: Praeger 1989.
Krathwohl, David R., Benjamin S. Bloom, and Bertram B. Masia,
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational
Handbook II: Affective Domain. New York: David McKay Co., Inc., 1964.
"How to write learning outcomes", by Alan Jenkins (Oxford Brookes
University) & Dave Unwin (Birkbeck College London)
- "Learning outcomes are statements of what is expected that a student
will be able to DO as a result of a
learning activity. For this new version of the Core Curriculum the
activity will be following your materials
on WWW or listening to a lecture based on them, but it could also be a
laboratory class, even an entire study programme."
Orwin, Clifford; Forbes, H. D.
The Openness That Closes: Allan Bloom and the Contemporary University.
Interchange; v22 n1-2 p115-25 1991
A Taxonomy of Future Higher Thinking Skills,
INFORMATICA, 2(1), 2003, [Abstract &
Winegarden, Babbi J.,
Writing Instructional Objectives
Teaching Entry Level Geoscience: Domains of Learning
Lists of Verbs associated with Bloom's Major Learning Categories